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Roman Kings Roman Kings Preceded the Roman Republic and Empire VideoTimeline of the Roman Emperors
This article is about the title in the Holy Roman Empire. For uses in antiquity, see King of Rome and Kingdom of Soissons.
Title used by medieval German monarchs. Further information: List of German monarchs and List of Holy Roman Emperors.
Kulturpatriotismus und deutsche weltliche Vokalmusik. Weisert: Der Reichstitel bis In: Archiv für Diplomatik Archiv für Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde 4 , — p.
Festschrift für Univ. Franz Huter anlässlich der Vollendung des Wagner, Innsbruck , p. Handbuch der Wappenwissenschaft. Böhlau, Wien , p. Only on one occasion was there both a ruling King of the Romans King Conrad III and a King of the Romans as heir Henry Berengar.
From the 16th century on, the senior ruler took the title of 'Emperor' from the time of his accession or succession; King of the Romans accordingly came to refer solely to the heir apparent.
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Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Namespaces Article Talk. He instituted the first census in Rome, which was used to determine the number of representatives each area had in the Senate.
Servius Tullius also divided the Roman citizens into tribes and fixed the military obligations of 5 census-determined classes. The tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus or Tarquin the Proud was the last Etruscan or any king of Rome.
According to legend, he came to power as a result of the assassination of Servius Tullius and ruled as a tyrant. He and his family were so evil, say the stories, that they were forcibly ousted by Brutus and other members of the Senate.
After the death of Tarquin the Proud, Rome grew under the leadership of the great families patricians. At the same time, however, a new government developed.
In BCE, as a result of a strike by the plebeians commoners , a new representative government emerged. This was the start of the Roman Republic.
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Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi , who acted as the warden of the city. When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers, even to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city.
The king was the sole person empowered to appoint patricians to the Senate. The king's imperium granted him both military powers as well as qualified him to pronounce legal judgment in all cases as the chief justice of Rome.
Although he could assign pontiffs to act as minor judges in some cases, he had supreme authority in all cases brought before him, both civil and criminal.
This made the king supreme in times of both war and peace. While some writers believed there was no appeal from the king's decisions, others believed that a proposal for appeal could be brought before the king by any patrician during a meeting of the Curiate Assembly.
To assist the king, a council advised the king during all trials, but this council had no power to control the king's decisions.
Also, two criminal detectives Quaestores Parridici were appointed by him as well as a two-man criminal court Duumviri Perduellionis which oversaw for cases of treason.
Under the kings, the Senate and Curiate Assembly had very little power and authority; they were not independent bodies in that they possessed the right to meet together and discuss questions of state.
They could only be called together by the king and could only discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had been submitted by the king, the Senate was effectively an honorable council.
It could advise the king on his action but, by no means, could prevent him from acting. The only thing that the king could not do without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assembly was to declare war against a foreign nation.
These issues effectively allowed the King to more or less rule by decree with the exception of the above-mentioned affairs.
Whenever a Roman king died, Rome entered a period of interregnum. Supreme power in the state would be devolved to the Senate, which had the task of finding a new king.
The Senate would assemble and appoint one of its own members as the interrex to serve for a period of five days with the sole purpose of nominating the next king of Rome.
After the five-day period, the interrex would appoint with the Senate's consent another Senator for another five-day term.
This process would continue until the election of a new king. Once the interrex found a suitable nominee for the kingship, he would bring the nominee before the Senate and the Senate would examine him.
Once a candidate was proposed to the Curiate Assembly, the people of Rome could either accept or reject the King-elect.
If accepted, the King-elect did not immediately take office: two additional acts had to take place before he was invested with the full regal authority and power.
First, it was necessary to obtain the divine will of the gods respecting his appointment by means of the auspices , since the king would serve as high priest of Rome.
An augur performed this ceremony by conducting the King-elect to the citadel where he was placed on a stone seat as the people waited below.
Second the imperium had to be conferred upon the King. The Curiate Assembly's vote only determined who was to be King, but that act did not bestow the powers of the king upon him.
Accordingly, the King himself proposed to the Curiate Assembly a bill granting him imperium, and the Curiate Assembly, by voting in favour of the law, would grant it.
In theory, the people of Rome elected their leader, but the Senate had most of the control over the process. Since Rome's records were destroyed in BC when the city was sacked , it is impossible to know for certain how many kings actually ruled the city, or if any of the deeds attributed to the individual kings, by later writers, are accurate.
Titus Tatius , King of the Sabines, was also joint king of Rome with Romulus for five years, until his death. However he is not traditionally counted among the seven kings of Rome.
The overthrow of the Roman monarchy of Tarquinius Superbus led to a limited separation of the powers mentioned above. The actual title of king was retained for the rex sacrorum , who formally remained Rome's first priest.
He was forbidden any political or military career, except for a seat in the senate. However, the Roman desire to prevent the kingship from becoming important went so far that, even in the area of religion, the king of sacrifices was formally, in all but protocol, subordinated to the first of the pontiffs , the pontifex maximus whose position in origin, rather than with the name of priest, is better described as "minister of religion" , to the extent that at some point in history, the regia or royal palace at the Forum Romanum, originally inhabited by the king of sacrifices,  was ceded to the pontifex maximus.
Further, the consuls retained religious roles which were considered so important that the office of interrex was retained for the opening prayer of "electional" assemblies in the event that both consuls died in office, and the ritual of driving a nail into the temple of Jupiter sometimes even induced a dictatorship.
The king of sacrifices retained some religious rites only he could perform, and acted as quasi- flamen to Janus. The position seems to have continued in existence until the official adoption of the Christian religion.
To qualify for the office, patrician ancestry was necessary; however it was once performed by a member of a family otherwise known as plebeian, the Marcii , earning for himself and his descendants the cognomen Rex.
As a consequence, the Sabine King, Titus Tatius attacked Rome and took the Capitol. Finally, Romulus shared the kingship of the city with Titus Tatius until his death.
The list of the seven kings of Rome, or eight if we include Titus Tatius, is as follows: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus.
No historian doubts the existence of the last three kings, since there is clear evidence of their reigns in Rome. Nowadays, it is also believed that the first three kings of Rome also existed.
Certain historians argue that the name of these seven kings dates back to when the first Roman historians, in the third century BC, wrote about the origins of Rome, which would confirm them to be true.Constantine I — ce ; reunified the empire. Caracalla — ce. Namespaces Article Talk. The Elizabethan Era. He established a council of founding Sydney To Casino known as the Senate. Zurück im Jahr testet Jake, ob sein Eingriff in die Geschichte erfolgreich war. Television und Bad Robot Productionseine Produktionsfirma von J. Mai erhältlich; die deutsche Übersetzung ist seit August Free Bingo Games For Cash No Deposit Heyne-Verlag erhältlich.
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